Three-dimensional Reconstruction From Electron Micrographs

Extensive List


General Reviews

Helical Structures

Crystalline, Two-dimensional Structures

Crystalline, Three-dimensional Structures

Single Particles With Point Group Symmetry - Icosahedral

Single Particles With Point Group Symmetry - Other

Single, Assymetric Particles (CI Point Group Symmetry


Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters and Bulletins

General Reviews

DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1968) Reconstruction of Three Dimensional Structures from Electron Micrographs. Nature 217:130-134.

Crowther, R. A., D. J. DeRosier and A. Klug (1970) The reconstruction of a three-dimensional structure from projections and its application to electron microscopy. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 317:319-340.

DeRosier, D. J. (1971) The reconstruction of three-dimensional images from electron micrographs. Contemp. Phys. 12:437-452.

Klug, A. (1971) III. Applications of Image Analysis Techniques in Electron Microscopy: Optical Diffraction and Filtering and Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from Electron Micrographs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:173-179.

Lake, J. A. (1972) Biological Studies. Optical Transforms (Ed. H. Lipson) Academic Press pp. 153-188.

Vainshtein, B. K. (1973) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Sov. Phys.-Usp. 16:185-206.

Crowther, R. A. and A. Klug (1975) Structural analysis of macromolecular assemblies by image reconstruction from electron micrographs. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44:161-182.

Misell, D. L. (1978) Image analysis, enhancement and interpretation. Pract. Meth. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. A. M. Glauert)North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam 7:1-305.

Saxton, W. O. (1978). Computer techniques for image processing in electron microscopy. Adv. in Electronics and Electron Physics, Supplement10 . (Eds. L. Marton & C. Marton), Academic Press, N. Y.

Vainshtein, B. K. (1978) Electron microscopical analysis of the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. 7:281-377.

Frank, J. (1979) Image analysis in electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy 117(1):25-38.

Hoppe, W. (1979) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of individual structures: Crystallography of 'Crystals' consisting of a single unit cell. Chemica Scripta 14:227-243.

Klug, A. (1979) Image analysis and reconstruction in the electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Chemica Scripta 14:245-256.

Aebi, U., W. Fowler and P. R. Smith (1982) Three-dimensional structure of protein determined by electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 8:191-206.

Steven, A. C. (1981) Visualization of virus structure in three dimensions. Meth. Cell Biol. 22:297-323.

Barth, M., Bryan, R. K., & Hegerl, R. (1989) Approximation of missing-cone data in 3D electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 31: 365-378

Frank, J. (1989) Advances in microscopy - Part 1. Three-dimensional imaging techniques in electron microscopy. Biotechniques 7:164-173.

Van Dyck, D. (1989) Three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional projections with unknown orientation, position and projection axis. Ultramicrosc. 30:435-438.

Helical Structures

DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1968) Reconstruction of three dimensional structures from electron micrographs. Nature (London) 217:130-134.

DeRosier, D. J. & Moore, P. B. (1970) Reconstruction of three-dimensional images from electron micrographs of structures with helical symmetry. J. Mol. Biol. 52:355-369.

Amos, L. A. & Klug, A. (1975) Three-dimensional image reconstructions of the contractile tail of T4 bacteriophage (Appendix: Combination of data from helical particles: Correlation and selection. By L. A. Amos). J. Mol. Biol. 99:51-73.

Smith, P. R., U. Aebi, R. Josephs and M. Kessel (1976) Studies of the structure of the T4 bacteriophage tail sheath I. The recovery of three-dimensional structural information from the extended sheath (Appendix: The determination of the helical screw angle of a helical particle from its diffraction pattern). J. Mol. Biol. 106:243-275.

Stewart, M. (1988) Computer image processing of electron micrographs of biological structures with helical symmetry. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:325-358.

Moody, M. F. (1990) Image analysis of electron micrographs. In Biophysical Electron Microscopy: Basic Concepts and Modern Techniques (P. W. Hawkes & U. Valdre, eds.) Academic Press, New York pp. 170-197,208-222.

Morgan, D. G. and D. DeRosier (1992) Processing images of helical structures: A new twist. Ultramicrosc. 46:263-285.

Crystalline, Two-Dimensional Structures

Henderson, R. & Unwin, P. N. T. (1975) Three-dimensional model of purple membrane obtained by electron microscopy. Nature (London) 257:28-32.

Fuller, S. D. (1981) Three-dimensional reconstruction of membrane protein crystals. Methods in Cell Biol. 22:251-296.

Amos, L. A., R. Henderson and P. N. T. Unwin (1982) Three-dimensional structure determination by electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 39:183-231.

Chiu., W. (1982). High-resolution electron microscopy of unstained, hydrated protein crystals. Electron Microscopy of Proteins. (Ed. J. R. Harris)Academic Press, N. Y. 233-259.

Glaeser, R. M. (1985) Electron crystallography of biological macromolecules. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 36:243-275.

Crystalline, Three-Dimensional Structures

Crowther, R. A.and P. K. Luther (1984) Three-dimensional reconstruction from a single oblique section of fish muscle M-band. Nature (London) 307:569-570.

Crowther, R. A., P. K. Luther and K. A. Taylor (1990) Computation of a three dimensional image of a periodic specimen from a single view of an oblique section. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 3:29-42.

Taylor, K. A. and R. A. Crowther (1991) A protocol for 3D image reconstruction from a single image of an oblique section. Ultramicrosc 38:85-103.

Winkelmann, D. A., T. S. Baker, & I. Rayment (1991) Three-dimensional structure of myosin subfragment 1 from electron microscopy of sectioned crystals. J. Cell Biol. 114:701-713.

Winkler, H. and K. A. Taylor (1996) Software for 3-D reconstruction of images of oblique sections through 3-D crystals. J. Struct. Biol. 116:241-247.

Single Particles with Point Group Symmetry


Crowther, R. A., Amos, L. A., Finch, J. T., DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1970) .Three dimensional reconstructions of spherical viruses by fourier synthesis from electron micrographs Nature 226:421-425.

Crowther, R. A. (1971) .Procedures for three-dimensional reconstruction of spherical viruses by fourier synthesis from electron micrographs Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:221-230.

Crowther, R. A. (1971) Three-dimensional reconstruction and the architecture of spherical viruses. Endeavour 30:124-129.

Fuller, S. D. (1987) .The T=4 envelope of Sindbis virus is organized by interactions with a complementary T=3 capsid Cell 48:923-934.

Baker, T. S., J. Drak & M. Bina (1988) Reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of Simian Virus 40 and visualization of the chromatin core. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:422-426.

Baker, T. S., J. Drak & M. Bina (1989) The capsid of small papova viruses contains 72 Pentameric capsomeres: Direct evidence from cryo-electron microscopy of Simian virus 40. Biophys. J. 55:243-253.

Baker, T. S. and R. H. Cheng (1996) A model-based approach for determining orientations of biological macromolecules imaged by cryoelectron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 116:120-130.

Fuller, S. D., S. J. Butcher, R. H. Cheng and T. S. Baker (1996) Three-dimensional reconstruction of icosahedral particles -- The uncommon line. J. Struct. Biol. 116:48-55.


DeRosier, D. J. & Oliver, R. M. (1972) .A low resolution electron-density map of lipoyl transsuccinylase, the core of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 36:199-203.

Mellema, J. E. & Klug, A. (1972) .Quaternary structure of gastropod haemocyanin Nature (London) 239:146-150.

Single, Asymmetric Particles (C1 Point Group Symmetry)

Frank, J., Radermacher, M., Wagenknecht, T. & Verschoor, A. (1986) .A new method for three-dimensional reconstruction of single macromolecules using low-dose electron microscopy Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483:77-87.

Frank, J. and M. Rademacher (1986). Three-dimensional reconstruction of nonperiodic macromolecular assemblies from electron micrographs. Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy Ed. J. K. Koehler. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Frank, J., M. Radermacher, T. Wagenknecht and A. Verschoor (1986). A new method for three-dimensional reconstruction of single macro molecules using low-dose electron microscopy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Recent Advances in Electron and Light Optical imaging in biology and Medicine Ed. A. P. Somlyo. New York, The N.Y. Academy of Sciences.

Radermacher, M., Wagenknecht, T., Verschoor, A. & Frank, J. (1987) .Three-dimensional reconstruction from a single-exposure, random conical tilt series applied to the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli J. Microsc. 146:113-136.

Radermacher, M. (1988) .Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles from random and non random tilt series J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:359-394

Frank, J. (1989) Image analysis of single macromolecules. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 2:53-74.

Frank, J. (1989) Advances in Microscopy - Part 1. Three-dimensional imaging techniques in electron microscopy. Biotechniques 7:164-173.

Frank, J. (1990) Classification of macromolecular assemblies studied as 'single particles'. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 23:281-329.

Schatz, M. and M. VanHeel (1990) Invariant classification of molecular views in electron micrographs. Ultramicrosc. 32:255-264.

Frank, J. and M. Radermacher (1992) Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles negatively stained or in vitreous ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:241-262.

Penczek, P., M. Radermacher and J. Frank (1992) Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles embedded in ice. Ultramicrosc 40:33-53.

Radermacher, M. (1994) Three-dimensional reconstruction from random projections: Orientational alignment via Radon transforms. Ultramicroscopy 53:121-136.

Dube, P., H. Stark, E. V. orlova, M. Schatz, E. Beckmann, F. Zemlin and M. vanHeel (1995) 3D structure of single macromolecules at 15Å resolution by cryo-microscopy and angular reconstitution. JMSA Proceed. Microsc. Microanal. 53:838-839.


Dover, S. D., A. Elliott and A. K. Kernaghan (1981) Three-dimensional reconstruction from images of tilted specimens: the paramyosin filament. JMICRO 122:23-33.

Olins, D. E., A. L. Olins, H. A. Levy, R. C. Durfee, S. M. Margle, E. P. Tinnel and S. D. Dover (1983) Electron microscopy tomography: Transcription in three dimensions. Science 220:498-500.

McEwen, B. F., M. Radermacher, C. L. Rieder and J. Frank (1986) Tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction of cilia ultrastructure from thick sections. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:9040-9044.

Frank, J., B. F. McEwen, M. Radermacher, J. N. Turner and C. L. Rieder (1987) Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction in high voltage electron microscopy. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 6:193-205.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl, A. J. Koster and W. Baumeister (1992) Towards automatic electron tomography. Ultramicrosc. 40:71-87.

Frank, J. (1992) Electron tomography: Three-dimensional imaging with the transmission electron microscope. (Plenum Prexss, N.Y.) pp. 1-399.

Koster, A. J., H. Chen, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1992) Automated microscopy for electron tomography. Ultramicrosc. 46:207-227.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl and W. Baumeister (1993) Towards automatic electron tomography II. Implementation of autofocus and low-dose procedures. Ultramicrosc. 49:109-120.

Fung, J. C., W. Liu, W. J. DeRuijter, H. Chen, C. K. Abbey, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1996) Toward fully automated high-resolution electron tomography. J. Struct. Biol. 116:181-189.

Hessler, D., S. J. Young and M. H. Ellisman (1996) A flexible environment for the visualization of three- dimensional biological structures. J. Struc. Biol. 116:113-119.

Kremer, J. R., D. N. Mastronarde and J. R. McIntosh (1996) Computer visualization of three-dimensional image data using IMOD. J. Struc. Biol. 116:71-76.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters, Bulletins

McEwen, B. F. and J. Frank (1990). Application ot tomographic 3D reconstruction methods to a diverse range of biological preparations. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:516-517.

McEwen, B. F., M. J. Song, A. Ruknudin, D. P. Barnard, J. Frank and F. Sachs (1990). Tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction of patch- clamped membranes imaged with the high-voltage EM. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:522-523.

Zhang, N.-Y., B. F. McEwen and J. Frank (1990). On the use of POCS for restoring the "missing wedge" in electron tomography. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:520-521

Carragher, B., D. F. Hessler, J. E. Hinshaw, M. Martone, R. A. Milligan, S. J. Young and M. H. Ellisman (1991). Computer-aided image analysis and graphics in biological microscopy at higher voltages. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 49:438-439.

Typke, D., K. Dierksen and W. Baumeister (1991). Automatic electron tomography. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 49:544-545

Agard, D. A., A. J. Koster, M. B. Braunfeld and J. W. Sedat (1992) Automated Data Collection for Electron Tomography. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1044-1045.

Frank, J. and B. F. McEwen (1992) Electron Tomography's Remaining Problems: How to Fill the Wedge in Fourier Space and How to See What You've Got in Real Space. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1062-1063.

Woodcock, C. L., R. A. Horowitz and D. A. Agard (1992) Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromatin Fibers in situ Examined by EM Tomography. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:498-499.

Koster, A. J., M. B. Braunfeld, J. C. Fung, C. K. Abbey, K. F. Han, W. Liu, H. Chen, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1993) Towards automatic three dimensional imaging of large biological structures using intermediate voltage electron microscopy. MSA Bull. 23:176-188.

Koster, A. J., J. Walz, D. Typke, M. Nitsch and W. Baumeister (1995) Three dimensional imaging of biological macromolecules. JMSA Proceed. Microsc. Microanal. 53:732-733.

Liu, W., J. Fung, W. J. deRuijter, H. Chen, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1995) Automated electron tomography: From data collection to image processing. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:26-27.

Mannella, C. A., M. Marko, K. Buttle, P. Penczek, A. Leith and J. Frank (1995) Tomographic reconstruction of mitochondria. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:740-741.

Skoglund, U., L.-A. Ofverstedt, R. Burnett and G. Bricogne (1995) Maximum entropy EM tomography: Demonstration of improved resolution with adenovirus. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:736-737.

Taylor, K. A. and H. Winkler (1995) 3-D reconstruction of paracrystalline biological specimens by tomography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:734-735.

Woodcock, C. L. (1995) Practical electron tomography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:742-743.

Daberkow, I., A. J. Koster, H. R. Tietz, D. Typke and J. Walz (1996) A system for automated electron tomography using Philps CM series transmission electron microscopes. Elec. Optics Bull. 134:27-31.

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Last edited April 29, 1997